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Border Collie's diseases


It is a congenital and hereditary disease, all affected dogs have bilateral choroidal hypoplasia (CH), a thinning of the vascular tissue in the back of the eye, which can cause bleeding and blindness and is due to a gene 37 mutation. a disease that has no cure.

It can be diagnosed in puppies before they are 3 months old, and always by an ophthalmologist, or by performing a genetic test on both parents to determine the absence of the mutation

Se puede diagnosticar en los cachorros antes de los 3 meses de edad, y siempre por un oftalmólogo, o bien realizando un test genético a ambos padres para determinar la ausencia de la mutación .


It is a type of epilepsy that is due to a series of inherited neuronal disorders, manifests a progressive degeneration of brain cells and eyes, which leads to early death.
Puppies a year old begin to show signs with a loss of coordination, visual loss… the disease has no cure.


It is a disease that affects the immune system. The marrow does produce white blood cells but it cannot reach the bloodstream, with which the animal is unable to fight infections. There’s no cure.


The mutation of this gene causes intolerance to certain drugs, the animal does not produce this protein necessary for the safe transport of drugs through the bloodstream to different organs of the body, it is responsible for preventing certain drugs from reaching the brain due to their toxicity , the disease can become deadly .
Some more harmful drugs would be: ivermectin, Doramectin, Abamectin, Emodepside, Loperamide, metroclopramide… that is why it is very important to know if our dog is affected or not by that gene.


It is a progressive neurological disease of the spinal cord.
It manifests with coordination symptoms of hind limbs (ataxia), causing difficulty walking, which ends with difficulty standing up, or walking, and ending up in a paraplegic animal, leading the animal to urinate on itself, defecate, and even to affect the forelimbs.


It is a hereditary alteration of the skeletal muscle, characterized by hypercapnia (abnormal elevation in the concentration of carbon dioxide in arterial blood), rhabdomyolysis (disorder that causes skeletal muscle necrosis), generalized skeletal muscle contracture, cardiac arrhythmia and renal failure. which is developed by exposure to succinylcholine or volatile anesthetic agents.



It is a progressive neurological disorder, it is a disease that affects the peripheral nerves. The peripheral nervous system is responsible for skin sensation and muscle control. Neuropathy can be divided into two groups, inherited or acquired through disease or trauma.


Dental hypomineralization. Developmental disorder of the teeth that is characterized by high wear of the teeth, with development of a light brown color, and soft enamel and inflammation of the gums.



primary lens or crystalline. In affected dogs, the fibers that support the lens break down or disintegrate, as a result, the lens falls out of position within the eye.

This results in loss of vision and can lead to blindness.


It is a disease that progressively and irreversibly damages the optic nerve, causing decreased vision and even blindness.
The optic nerve is a key structure. Through it, the images captured by the retina are transmitted to the brain (converted into nerve impulses) so that it can interpret them and vision is generated. The aqueous humor is a liquid found inside the eye. A healthy eye permanently expels part of this liquid and replaces it with the new one that it generates. If the exit pathways are obstructed, excess fluid increases intraocular pressure, which can irreversibly damage the optic nerve.
It can affect one or both eyes, advanced glaucoma can cause red eyes, blurred vision, severe pain, nausea, vomiting, irritability and aggressive behavior due to pain.


It is a deafness that usually occurs in dogs between 3-5 years old, and affects both ears.



Laxity of the hip joint is a disease of multifactorial origin, which means that the symptoms are a combination of genetic and environmental factors (especially nutrition and mobility).

The laxity allows an abnormal movement of the bone within the same hip, leading to less stability, it also produces bone ossification in young dogs, with which the development of that bone slows down, both the laxity disorder and dosage, can derive in osteoarthritis when dogs reach maturity.

joint diseases bc


Dysplasia is a pathology that can appear throughout the life of the animal, hindering its mobility and harming its general well-being, it is a malformation of the hip joint. The head of the femur does not fit completely in the acetabulum or hip socket, causing lameness and pain, since it is creating wear on the joint.
It can affect one or both hips.

It is a multifactorial and osteoarticular disease that can be hereditary and degenerative. Therefore, there may be different factors with which to try to predict whether the disease can develop or not.

Walking and jogging with hip sway
joint stiffness
difficulty getting up
Humor changes .

At what age does it usually develop?
It can affect dogs of any age, although puppies are most prone.
Large breeds are more prone to suffer from them, in puppies it usually appears around 5-6 months, and is marked by a limp.

What factors influence the appearance of hip dysplasia?

1 genetic conditions of the parents, that is, if the parents suffer from dysplasia, that puppy is more likely to suffer from it.
2. Poor or inadequate nutrition.
3. Mishandling of the animal, that is, subjecting it to certain exercises that are not in accordance with the age of the puppy.

Currently we have within our reach the radiological study, where a team of traumatologist veterinarians study and determine the degree that the animal has, thus certifying the results.
We work with SETV, the Spanish Society of Traumatology and Veterinary Orthopedics.
This disease has no cure, we can start with medication treatment such as chondroprotectors, physiotherapy, and surgery in the worst case, it all depends on the degree of dysplasia and the age of the animal.


Elbow dysplasia is a disease that consists of multiple abnormalities in the elbow joints. The elbow joint is a complex joint formed by three bones (the radius, ulna and humerus9. If these three bones do not fit perfectly as a result of growth disorders, an abnormal distribution of weight occurs on different areas of the joint, which causes pain, lameness and causes arthritis to develop.
It is a multifactorial disease, produced by cartilage growth defects, trauma, diet, and other issues.
Unfortunately, once the elbow joint is damaged, either by loss of cartilage, medial space disease, or poor union of the anconeal process, a vicious cycle of inflammation and further damage to the elbow ensues. cartilage. Ultimately, this causes progressive arthritis of the elbow joint, leading to pain and loss of function.
Dogs affected by dysplasia usually show signs from an early age, usually as young as 5 months, although some dogs are diagnosed much later in age.
Treatment depends on the severity of the disease. Surgery is recommended in most cases, but the vet may recommend drug treatment



Osteochondrosis commonly occurs in the shoulders of immature dogs and large breeds. The lesion usually appears on the caudal (rear) surface of the humeral head. Osteochondritis begins with a failure of the immature cartilage to form bone at the top of the humerus. This failure causes abnormal thickening of the cartilage. The increase in the thickness of the cartilage can lead to unwanted cartilage cells that end up dying. The loss of these cartilage cells in the deep layers of cartilage leads to the formation of a defect in the union between the cartilage and the bone.
Subsequently, normal daily activity can cause cracks in the cartilage that eventually communicate with the joint, forming a flap of cartilage, this flap becomes osteochondrosis desiccant. It is associated with pain and dysfunction. The cartilage flap may become completely detached from the underlying bone and become lodged in the posterior part of the joint pocket. Free cartilage flaps may become lodged in the joints and increase in size with age. calcification .
The cause depends on multiple factors, such as genetics, age, anatomical abnormalities, rapid growth, excess nutrients (mainly protein, calories, calcium and phosphorus),

Clinical signs frequently develop when the dog is between four and eight months of age. Dogs usually start limping on one of their front legs. In many cases, the gradual onset of lameness improves after rest and worsens after exercise.

Surgical treatment involves removal of the cartilage flap from the joint and roughening the edges of the bony defect to ensure removal of all affected cartilage.

Jack Russell's diseases


It is a disorder in which the zonule or zonular fibers suffer a degeneration that causes painful glaucoma and even leads to blindness.
The lens is formed by a transparent, soft, highly structured and avascular tissue.
Treatment is removal of the luxated lens. It is considered an ophthalmological emergency that must be resolved by a specialist, since the capacity of the compromised eye is in danger. Before the referral and in agreement with the specialist, three aspects should be taken into account to be dealt with immediately:


The absence of a glare response in the affected eye and a consensual pupillary reflex in the other eye are signs of a poor prognosis, which should be communicated to the owner so that they understand the severity of the clinical picture and the need for urgent consultation. with the specialist.

ACS. spinocerebellar ataxia

It is a genetic disease, characterized by asymmetric gait movements, hypermetria, and spastic movement.

Clinically, an alteration in the walking of the puppy of 2-6 months of age is observed, seizures can occur or also develop respiratory distress and the most relevant is deafness.



It is a condition characterized by an excessive level of uric acid in the dog’s urine, which can also cause painful kidney or bladder stones.

This disease, which can occur in any breed of dog, is hereditary.

Affected dogs should be fed low-purine diets, and fluid intake should be monitored.



Laxity: This can be defined as “abnormal freedom of movement of the bone in the hip joint”. As a result, the hip is less stable compared to healthy dogs.

Ossification and bone formation: In younger dogs, the normal process of bone formation can be disturbed.

Both laxity and ossification disorders lead to the development of osteoarthritis in the dog when it reaches mature age. Severely affected dogs may already show symptoms as early as a few months of age.

Other affected dogs develop osteoarthritis at later ages.



It is a disease of lack of coordination of the march and lack of balance.

The age of onset of the disease is generally between 6 months and 1 year of age, when owners may begin to notice changes in their gait pattern (frequently in the hind limbs) and some difficulty in their dog. to maintain balance.

The disease is progressive and affected dogs become increasingly uncoordinated with difficulty maintaining balance, making movement and tasks such as going up and down stairs difficult.

There is no treatment or cure for LOA, and affected dogs are often euthanized.


Animals affected by SCID have severe loss of the immune system.

The cubs die of various infections shortly after birth.

Symptoms develop at an early age.

From a few hours to a maximum of several weeks after birth.

Depending on the severity of the disease, the pup may be completely devoid of an immune system.


Enamel hypoplasia is an alteration in the production of the enamel matrix that generally appears in the permanent dentition.

The enamel covers the area of ​​the teeth exposed to the environment of the oral cavity, and is a very thin layer of material that is deposited on the surface of the developing tooth (before its eruption). It is formed and deposited by the forming organ. of enamel and its mineralization begins in the dentin.

Areas of enamel hypoplasia usually appear as yellow or yellowish areas and often have a rough surface.

This disease has been discovered in the PARSOL RUSSELL TERRIER.


Myasthenia is produced by curing there is a deficit of acetylcholine receptors. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter molecule produced in neurons, which are the cells of the nervous system, and which serves for the transmission of the nerve impulse.

Its receptors are found, above all, in the neuromuscular endings of the peripheral central nervous system.

When the dog wants to move a muscle, acetylcholine is released, which will transmit the order to move through its receptors.

If these are present in insufficient number or do not work correctly, muscle movement is affected, this is called myasthenia gravis, the disease occurs in different ways:

Focal myasthenia gravis, which affects only the muscles responsible for swallowing.
Congenital myasthenia gravis, which is inherited.
Acquired myasthenia gravis, which is immune-mediated, that is, it is produced by the attack of the dog’s antibodies that are directed against its own acetylcholine receptors and destroy them.

The main symptoms of myasthenia gravis is generalized muscle weakness, which will also worsen with exercise.

We will notice it more clearly in the hind legs. The sick dog will have a hard time getting up and walking. We will see him wobble.
In focal myasthenia gravis, the problems will be concentrated in swallowing, since, in this case, the disease affects only the muscles involved in this function. The dog is unable to swallow solids and its esophagus becomes enlarged and dilated. This damage can lead to aspiration pneumonia , which occurs when food passes through the respiratory system instead of the digestive system and ends up in the lungs.

The treatment is based on the intake of medicines and veterinary control


Disease also known as KRABBE, is a disorder that affects the nervous system. This disease is due to a deficiency of the enzyme galactosylceramidase.

Animals are generally normal at birth, do not grow as fast as their littermates, and at a consistent age develop progressive signs of a nervous system disorder that will ultimately be fatal.

In globoid cell leukodystrophy, a lack of the enzyme B-galactocerebrosidase causes an accumulation of galactocerebroside, a component of myelin.

This disrupts the cells that normally produce myelin, a fatty substance that coats nerve cells, serves as an electrical insulator, and is crucial for the normal conduction of nerve impulses.

The progressive loss of myelin in the white matter tracts of the nervous system (brain, spinal cord and/or peripheral nerves) causes a series of clinical signs such as lack of coordination, tremors and weakness.
This is a condition similar to Krabbe disease in people.
Discovered in Terriers.



In juvenile encephatolopathy, affected dogs suffer epileptic seizures and the disease progresses rapidly causing irreversible and eventually fatal brain damage. The onset is from 6-12 weeks of age.

Affected affected dogs are often euthanized for welfare reasons, due to the severity of the clinical signs.

Disease discovered in Parson Russell Terriers


Joint diseases JR


There is talk of luxating patella in dogs, when the patella, a small bone located in front of the knee joint and which is necessary for its correct position for proper functioning of the animal’s extremity, comes out of its place, trochlea, causing pain and functional weakness in the dog.

There are different degrees, treatment depends on the degree of dislocation and lameness, but in most cases surgical treatment is required consisting of soft tissue repair, bone reconstruction, or a combination of the two.
The use of chondroprotectors is recommended.